Depresión y ansiedad prenatal: una revisión de la literatura

Palabras clave: embarazo, depresion, ansiedad, factores de riesgo, impactos en la salud

Resumen

Introducción. Las mujeres con depresión y ansiedad prenatal pueden sufrir problemas en su funcionamiento social, retraimiento emocional y excesiva preocupación por su habilidad futura para ejercer el rol materno. Objetivo. Identificar y describir los hallazgos reportados sobre los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de depresión y ansiedad prenatal, las consecuencias para la madre y su descendencia, las explicaciones teóricas que abordan su génesis, mantenimiento y las estrategias de atención en salud. Metodología. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos y fuentes de información: Pub Med, EBSCO Host, Scielo, Redalyc y Google Scholar, de artículos publicados entre 1995 y 2015, empleando los términos “depression during pregnancy”, “antenatal anxiety”, “perinatal mental health”, y “prenatal anxiety” entre otros, se seleccionaron artículos que reportaran el riesgos e impactos en la salud de la madre y su descendencia, explicaciones teóricas sobre génesis y mantenimiento de la depresión y ansiedad. Resultados. El principal factor de riesgo identificado es una historia previa de ansiedad y/o depresión; entre los efectos negativos para la salud del bebe se destacan restricción en el crecimiento fetal, bajo peso al nacer, parto prematuro y a futuro problemas emocionales y conductuales del niño. Las estrategias de acción comprenden el diseño de guías y protocolos de atención clínica que permiten identificar las mujeres en riesgo y las que ya presentan una sintomatología media o severa. Conclusiones. Los anteriores resultados ponen en evidencia la necesidad de implementar estrategias de acción que permitan la identificación temprana de poblaciones en riesgo. [Mojica-Perilla M, Redondo-Rodríguez S, Osma-Zambrano SE. Depresión y ansiedad prenatal: una revisión de la literatura. MedUNAB. 2019;22(2):200-212. doi: 10.29375/01237047.2820]

Biografía del autor/a

Mónica Mojica-Perilla, Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga

Psicóloga, Magíster en Educación, Doctora en Salud Pública. Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia.

Sol Redondo-Rodriguez, Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga

Psicóloga, Magíster en Consejería Psicológica. Member Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association, Centre de Femmes, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Sonia Esperanza Osma-Zambrano, Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga

Médica y cirujana, especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia, magister en Epidemiología, Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga. Universidad Industrial de Santander. Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
Mojica-Perilla, M., Redondo-Rodriguez, S., & Osma-Zambrano, S. E. (2019). Depresión y ansiedad prenatal: una revisión de la literatura. MedUNAB, 22(2), 200-212. https://doi.org/10.29375/01237047.2820

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Publicado
2019-09-26