Ansiedad y depresión identificadas con la Escala de Golberg en estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud

  • Álvaro de Jesus Monterrosa-Castro Médico. Especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia. Profesor Titular. Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Cartagena. Colombia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0686-6468
  • Estéfana Ordosgoitia-Parra Estudiante de Medicina. Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Cartagena. Colombia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4264-7836
  • Teresa Beltrán-Barrios Filósofa. Maestranda en Filosofía. Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer. Universidad de Cartagena. Colombia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3175-2585
Palabras clave: Ansiedad, Depresión, Servicios de salud para estudiantes, Adulto joven, Salud Mental

Resumen

Introducción. Los programas universitarios del área de la salud son exigentes y la rutina es extenuante, por lo tanto, generan estrés y un potencial impacto psicológico negativo en los estudiantes. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la ansiedad y a la depresión en estudiantes del área de la salud. Metodología. Estudio de tipo transversal aplicado a estudiantes de Medicina, Enfermería y Química Farmacéutica de una universidad colombiana que diligenciaron anónima y voluntariamente un formulario con datos sociodemográficos y, a su vez, la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión de Goldberg. Se realizó regresión logística: ansiedad o depresión (variable dependiente) y las características sociodemográficas (independientes); p<0.05, estadísticamente significativo. Resultados. Losparticipantes corresponden a 697 jóvenes, cuyas edades oscilan entre 20.3±1.7. El 43.6% estudiaba Medicina, el 26.2% Química Farmacéutica y el 30.1% Enfermería. Se identificó ansiedad en el 49.8% (intervalo de confianza 95%:46.0-53.4) y depresión en el 80.3% (intervalo de confianza 95%:77.2- 83.1). Estudiar Medicina, Enfermería, ser de sexo femenino, padecer de sobrepeso e infrapeso, haber tenido consulta previa psicológica o psiquiátrica, tener medicación permanente y sufrir de alguna enfermedad crónica, se asocia a mayor presencia de ansiedad. Proceder de zonas rurales se asoció a mayor depresión. Discusión. Los hallazgos muestran alta prevalencia de síntomas de ansiedad y depresión en el grupo de jóvenes universitarios del área de la salud. Si bien la escala utilizada no hace diagnóstico, sí sugiere la existencia de manifestaciones patológicas. Factores psicosociales, sobre todo del entorno juvenil, estuvieron asociados. Situaciones similares han sido señaladas por diferentes autores. Conclusiones. Se identificó ansiedad en la mitad de los estudiantes y depresión en ocho de cada diez. Factores inherentes a la vida universitaria, costumbres, hábitos y actividades recreativas se asociaron significativamente.

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Cómo citar
Monterrosa-Castro, Álvaro de J., Ordosgoitia-Parra, E., & Beltrán-Barrios, T. (2020). Ansiedad y depresión identificadas con la Escala de Golberg en estudiantes universitarios del área de la salud. MedUNAB, 23(3), 372-404. https://doi.org/10.29375/01237047.3881

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Publicado
2020-11-26